Ashtanga Namaskara (salute with eight parts or points)

Keep the hands and feet in place.Lower the knees, chest and chin to the floor; the feet will come up on to the toes.

In the final position only the toes, knees, chest, hands and chin touch the floor. The knees, chest and chin should touch the floor

simultaneously. If this is not possible, first lower the knees, then the chest, and  the chin.The buttocks, hips and abdomen should be raised. Breathing: The breath is held out in this pose. There is no

respiration.
 
Contra-indications: People with serious back problems, high
blood pressure or heart conditions should not do this
practice.
 
Benefits: This pose strengthens the leg and arm muscles,
develops the chest and exercises the region of the spine
between the shoulder blades.
 

Tree Pose

Vrksasana clarifies just how challenging it can be to stand on one leg.
 
TREE POSE(VRKSASANA) : STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS

Step 1 : Stand in Tadasana.Shift your weight slightly onto the left foot, keeping the inner foot firm to the floor, and bend your right knee. Reach down with your right hand and clasp your right ankle.

Step 2: Draw your right foot up and place the sole against the inner left thigh; ifpossible, press the right heel into the inner left groin, toes pointingtoward the floor. The center of your pelvis should be directly over the left foot.

Step 3: Rest your hands on the top rim of your pelvis. Make sure the pelvis is in a neutral position, with the top rim parallel to the floor.

Step 4: Lengthen your tailbone toward the floor. Firmly press the right foot sole against the inner thigh and resist with the outer left leg. raise your hands together in . Gaze softly at a fixed point in front of you on the floor about 4 or 5 feet away.

Step 5: Stay for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Step back to Tadasana with an exhalation and repeat for the same length of time with the legs reversed.

Benefits

  • Strengthens thighs, calves, ankles, and spine
  • Stretches the groins and inner thighs, chest and shoulders
  • Improves sense of balance
  • Relieves sciatica and reduces flat feet
Contradiction:
 
those have ankle problem or surgery of ankle, and any bone broken, should be avoid this posture.
Simhasana (lion pose)
 
Sit in vajrasana with the knees about 45 em apart.
The toes of both feet should remain in contact with each other.
Lean foiWard and place the palms of the hands on the floor between the knees, with the fingers pointing towards the body.
Straighten the arms fully and arch the back.
Rest the body on the straight arms.
Tilt the head back so that there is a comfortable amount of tension in the neck.
open  the eyes and focus the inner gaze at the eyebrow centre, performing shambhavi mudra.
The eyes may also be kept open, in which case gaze at a point on the ceiling.
The mouth should be closed.
Relax the whole body and mind.
 
Benefits: In this posture there is a very definite extension of the spinal cord and the body is absolutely fixed. There is total physical stability, it is very good for prgnant woman
Tiryaka Bhujangasana (twisting cobra pose)
 
Lie flat on the stomach with the legs separated about half a meter. The toes should be tucked under and the heels raised so that the foot rests on the ball of the foot.
Place the palm of the hands flat on the floor, below and slightly to the side of the shoulders.
The fingers should be together and pointing forward. The arms should be positioned so that the elbows point backward and are close to the sides of the body.
Rest the forehead on the floor and close the eyes.
Relax the whole body, especially the lower back.
Slowly raise the head, neck and shoulders. Straightening the elbows, raise the trunk as high as comfortable. Use the back muscles more than the arm muscles.
The head should be facing forward, instead of bending backward as in bhujangasana.
Twist the head and upper portion of the trunk, and look over the left shoulder.
Gaze at the heel of the right foot.
In the final position, the arms remain straight or slightly bent as the shoulders and trunk are twisted.
Relax the back and keep the navel close to the floor.
Stay in the final position for a few seconds.
Face forward again and repeat the twist on the other side
 without lowering the trunk.
Return to the center and lower the body to the floor. This is one round. Practice 3 to 5 rounds.
Breathing: Inhale while raising the torso.
Exhale while twisting to the side, inhale to center, exhale to the other side and again inhale to center.
Exhale while lowering the torso to the floor.
Awareness: Physical – on the stretch of the muscles of the back and intestines, and the diagonal stretch of the abdomen.
 
contra-indications: People suffering from peptic ulcer,hernia, intestinal tuberculosis or hyperthyroidism should not practice this asana without the guidance of a competent teacher.
 
Benefits: This asana improves and deepens breathing. It can help to remove backache and keep the spine supple and healthy. It tones the ovaries and uterus, and helps in menstrual and some other gynaecological disorders. It stimulates the appetite, alleviates constipation and is beneficial for all the abdominal organs, especially the liver and kidneys.
Vayu Nishkasana (wind releasing pose)
 
Squat with the feet about 60 em apart.
Grasp the insteps of the feet, placing the fingers under the soles with the thumbs above.
The upper arms should be pressing against the inside of the knees with the elbows slightly bent..
The eyes should be open throughout the practice.
Inhale while moving the head back. Direct the gaze upward. This is the starting position.
Hold the breath for 3 seconds, accentuating the backward movement of the head.
While exhaling, straighten the knees, raise the buttocks and bring the head forward towards the knees.
Hold the breath for 3 seconds, accentuating the spinal bend. Do not strain.
 Inhaling, return to the starting position. This is one round.
Practice 5 to 10 rounds.
Breathing: Inhale in the squatting position.
Exhale in the raised position.
 
Contra-indications: Not for people with knee problems or
sciatica. People with very high blood pressure or asterio­ sclerosis should not practice this asana – cautions for inverted postures apply.
 
Benefits:  This pose has a beneficial effect on the nerves and muscles of the thighs, knees, shoulders, arms and neck. The pelvic organs and muscles are mas­saged. It gives an equal stretch to the whole spine and both the arm and leg muscles. All the vertebrae and joints are pulled away from each other so that the pressure between them is balanced. Simultaneously, all the spinal nerves are stretched and toned. It is also useful for relieving flatulence.
Kati Chakrasana (waist rotating pose)
 
Stand with the feet about shoulder width apart and the arms by the sides.
Raise the arms to shoulder level, then twist the body to the right.
Bring the left hand to the right shoulder and wrap the right arm around the back, bringing the right hand around the left side of the waist. Look over the right shoulder as far as is comfortable.
 Keep the back of the neck straight and imagine the top of the spine is the fixed point around which the head turns. Hold for two seconds,accentuatethe twist,gently stretching the abdomen.
 
Return to the starting position.
Repeat on the other side to complete one round.
Keep the feet firmly on the ground while twi�ting.
 
Relax the arms and back as much as possible throughout the practice. Do not strain. The movement should be relaxed and spontaneous. Perform the rotation smoothly,without jerking or stiffness. Practise 5 to 1 0 rounds.
 
Breathing: Inhale raising the arms. Exhale twisting to the side.
Inhale returning to the center. Exhale while releasing the posture.
Awareness: On the stretch of the abdomen and spinal muscles, and on the breathing synchronized with the movement.
 
Benefits: This asana tones the neck, shoulders, waist, back and hips. It is useful for correcting back stiffness and postural problems. The relaxation and twisting movement induces a feeling of lightness and may be used to relieve physical and mental tension at any time during the day.
Bhu Namanasana (spinal twist prostration pose)
 
Sit with the spine erect and the legs outstretched.
Place the hands to the side of the right hip.
Move the right hand back slightly further behind the body with the fingers pointing backward.

 

Twist the trunk 90 degrees to the right, using the arms and shoulders as levers. Slowly bend the torso and bring the forehead to the floor, close to the hand placed behind the body. The spine should be as straight as possible. Try to keep both buttocks on the floor.

Hold the final position for a short time.
Slowly raise and return to the starting position.
Repeat the movement on the other side. This completes one round.
Practice up to 5 rounds.
 
Breathing: Inhale while facing forward.
Retain the breath in while twisting.
Exhale while bending.
Retain the breath out in the final position or breathe normally if holding the asana for some time.
Inhale while raising the trunk.
Exhale while re-centering the body.
 
Contra-indications:

People with back problems, peptic ulcer, herniahyperthyroidism, high blood pressure or heart problems should not practice this asana.

Benefits: This asana stretches the spine and lower back, making the muscles supple and stimulating the nerves.
 
Chakki Chalanasana (churning the mill)
 

Sit with the legs stretched out in front of the body with the feet widely separated. Interlock the fingers of both hands and hold the arms out straight in front of the chest. Keep the arms straight and horizontal throughout the practice; do not bend the elbows.

Bend forward as far as possible without straining. Imagine the action of churning a mill with an old-fashioned stone grinder.
 

Swivel to the right so that the hands pass above the right toes and as far to the right as possible without straining. Lean back as far as possible onthe backward swing.

Try to move the body from the waist. On the forward swing, bring the arms and hands to the left side, over the left toes and then back to the center position.

One rotation is one round.
Practice 5 to 1 0 rounds clockwise and then the same number of rounds anti-clockwise.
 
Breathing: Inhale while leaning back. Exhale while moving forward.
Awareness: On the movement and sensations in the lower back, hips and pelvic area, and the breath.

Benefits:

This asana is excellent for toning the nerves and organs of the pelvis and abdomen. It is very useful for regulating the menstrual cycle and may be performed during the first three months of pregnancy. It is also an excellent exercise for postnatal recovery.this asana will help to reducess extra fat from abdomen.

 
Contradiction:those have abdominal surgery , and mensuration time should be avoid this posture.
 
Eka Padottanasana (one leg raised to head pose)
 
Sit with the legs outstretched.
Bend the right knee and place the foot flat on the floor in front of the right buttock.
Fold the left leg, keeping the knee on the ground, and place the heel under the perineum.
Interlock the fingers under the sole of the right foot. This is the starting position.
Raise the right foot and straighten the knee. Keep the spine straight.
Bring the knee to the nose.
Hold the pose for as long as is comfortable.
Bend the knee and lower the foot to the floor.
Practise a maximum of 5 times.
Repeat on the other side.
Breathing: Inhale in the starting position.
Retain the breath in while raising and lowering the leg. Retain the breath in the final position or breathe normally if held for an extended duration.
Exhale in the starting position.
 
 Awareness: Physical – on relaxation of the muscles of the straight leg, particularly the hamstrings.
Sequence: This asana is a preparatory practice for meditative and fotward bending asanas.
 
Contra-indications: People with back complaints or a dis­ placed coccyx should not practise this asana.tose have back problem, and surgery of abdomen, and mensuration time should avoid this posture.
 
Benefits: This asana renders the hamstring muscles and hip joints flexible.

the feet together, keeping the heels as close to the perineum as possible. Fully relax the inner thigh muscles.

Stage I : Clasp the feet with both hands.
Gently move the knees up and then down towards the floor, but do not use any force.
 
Practice up to 30 up and down movements.
 
Breathing: Normal breathing, unrelated to the practice. Awareness: On the hip joint, movement and relaxation.
 
Contra-indications: People with sciatica and sacral conditions
should avoid this asana.
 
Benefits: this asana prepare the legs for mastery of
padmasana and other meditative asanas. The inner thigh muscles hold a lot of tension which is relieved by these asanas. They also remove tiredness due to long hours of Standing and walking ..
Padadhirasana (breath balancing pose)
 
Sit in vajrasana.
Cross the arms in front of the chest, placing the hands under the opposite armpits with the thumbs pointing upward, or, for a stronger effect, make fists of the hands and place them under the armpits.
Close the eyes and become aware of the breathing process.
Breathing: Slow, deep and rhythmical. Practice until the flow of the breath in both nostrils becomes equalized.
Duration: To prepare for pranayama, practice until the flow of the breath equalizes, or for 5 to 1 0 minutes.
 
 Benefits: The pressure under both the armpits helps to open the nostrils to facilitate the practice of pranayama. Since the breath flow in the right and left nostrils influences the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems respectively, opening of the two nostrils induces a state of autonomic balance.
Practice note: Padadhirasana may be used as a preparation for pranayama. It is specially useful when one or both nostrils are blocked.
If only one nostril is blocked, or partially blocked, place the hand of that side underneath the opposite armpit. Maintain the pressure for a 1 minute or two minute.
Contradiction:those have knee  problem or ankle problem try to avoid the posture.
Yogamudrasana (psychic union pose)
 
Sit in cross legs and close the eyes.
Relax the body for some time, breathing normally.
Hold one wrist behind the back with the other hand. Inhale deeply.
While exhaling, bend forward, keeping the spine straight. Bring the forehead to the floor or as close as is comfortable. Relax the whole body in the final position, breathing slowly and deeply. Be aware of the pressure of the heels on the abdomen.
Stay in the final position for as long as is comfortable. Do not strain the back, ankles, knees or thighs by forcing the body into the posture or staying in it for too long. Slowly return to the starting position.
Repeat the pose with the legs crossed the otherway around.
Breathing: Inhale slowly and deeply in the starting position. Exhale while bending forward.
Breathe deeply and slowly in the final position.
Inhale while returning to the starting pose.
 
Duration: Remain in the final position for one or two minutes if comfortable.
 
Awareness: Physical – on the back, abdomen or breathing. 
 
Contra-indications: People with serious eye, back or heart conditions, or with high blood pressure, and those in the early post-operative or post-delivery period should not attempt this asana.
 
Benefits: This is an excellent asana for massaging the abdominal organs, removing constipation and indigestion. It stretches the back, freeing the spinal nerves which emerge from the spaces between the vertebrae, thus contributing to good general health. Yogamudrasana is used to awaken manipura chakra.
Gatyatmak Meru Vakrasana (dynamic spinal twist
 
Sit on the floor with both legs outstretched.
Separate the legs as far apart as comfortable.
Do not allow the knees to bend.
Stretch the arms sideways at shoulder level.
Keeping the arms straight, twist to the left and bring the right hand down towards the left big toe.
Stretch the straight left arm behind the back as the trunk twists to the left.
Keep both arms in one straight line.
Turn the head to the left and gaze at the left outstretched hand.
Twist in the opposite direction and bring the left hand down towards the right big toe.
Stretch the straight right arm behind the back. Turn the head to the right and gaze at the right outstretched hand. This is one round.
Practice I0 rounds.
Start slowly and then gradually increase the speed.
 
Breathing: To give maximum flexion of the spine: exhale when twisting and inhale when returning to the center.
 
Awareness: On the twisting movement and the effect on the spinal vertebrae and muscles, and the breath.
 
 Contra-indications: People with back conditions should avoid this asana.
 
Benefits: This asana removes stiffness of the back and increases flexibility of the spine.
ARDHA SHALABHASANA  
 
 Lie on the stomach with the legs and feet together and the forehead touching the floor.
Stretch both arms above the head in advasana. Place the chin on the floor.
Keep the arms and legs straight throughout the practice. Simultaneously, raise the left leg, the head and right arm as high as possible.
The left leg should be stretched backwards and the right arm stretched forward as they are raised.
Retain the position for as long as possible without straining. Lower the leg, head and arm to the starting position. , allowing the respiration to return to normal.
Repeat the same movement with the right leg and left arm .
This is one round. Practice up to 5 rounds.
 
Breathing: Inhale while raising the leg, arm and head. Retain while holding the position.
Exhale while lowering the leg, arm and head to the starting position.
Awareness: Physical – on synchronizing the breath with the movement and on the diagonal stretch through the body from the tips of the toes of the raised leg to the fingertips of the opposite hand.
 
 Benefits: This variation is beneficial for beginners with weak and stiff backs as it helps to tone the back muscles and stimulate the nerves, particularly in the lower back, while simultaneously giving a strong diagonal stretch to the body. It develops concentration through awareness of coordination of movement with breath.
CONTRADICTION:those have any medical problem in abdomen should avoid this posture.and  for ladies in menturation time should avoid this posture.
Janu Sirshasana (head to knee pose)
 

Sit with the legs outstretched and the feet together. Bend the left leg,placing the heel of the foot against the perineum and the sole of the foot against the inside of the right thigh. Keep the left knee on the floor.

Place the hands on top of the right knee, keeping the spine straight and the back muscles relaxed.
This is the starting position.

 

Slowly bend forward, sliding the hands down the right leg, and grasp the right foot. If possible, hold the big toe with the index finger, middle finger and thumb of the left hand and the outside edge of the foot with the right hand.

Try to touch the knee with the forehead.
This is the final position.
 
Keep the back relaxed and do not strain.
Hold the position for as long as is comfortable.
Return to the starting position and rest the hands on the knees.
Change sides and repeat with the right leg bent and the left leg straight.
Practice up to 5 times with each leg.
 
Breathing: Inhale in the starting position.
Exhale while bending forward.
Retain the breath outside if holding the final position for a short time.
Breathe normally if holding the pose for a longer time. Inhale while returning to the starting position.
 

Contra-indications: People who suffer from slipped disc, sciatica or hernia should not practice this asana, and those have surgery of abdomen, and those have mensuration , should be avoid this posture.

Benefits:This asana stretches the hamstring muscles and increases flexibility in the hip joints. It tones and massages the entire abdominal and pelvic region, including the liver, pancreas, spleen, uro-genital system,kidneys and adrenal glands. It helps to remove excess weight in this area and stimulates circulation to the nerves and muscles of the spine.

Utthan Pristhasana (lizard pose)
 
Lie on the stomach with the arms crossed under the chest, the hands holding the upper arms.
Separate the legs slightly and keep the feet flat.
Raise the head so that the face looks forward.
This is the starting position.
The elbows should not move during the practice.
Raise the trunk and buttocks so that the body is supported by the knees and elbows, as in the first diagram.
Stretch the torso back, placing the chin and chest on, or as close as possible to, the floor behind the forearms.
Return to the raised position and then to the starting position.
This is one round.
Breathing: Inhale while raising the trunk, exhale into the stretch. Breathe normally while holding the position. Inhale coming up onto the knees and elbows.
Exhale while lowering the body back to the ground.
Duration : Up to 1 0 rounds if practising dynamically, less if holding the stretch for a comfortable length of time.
UTTHAN PRISTHASANA
  Benefits: This asana exercises and strengthens the chest and diaphragm. It tones the entire back and gives many benefits of inverted asanas with less risk of side effects. It is excellent for relieving tightness between the shoulder blades. When held for some time, it helps to relieve constipation and
piles.
 
Parivritti Janu Sirshasana (spiralled head to knee pose)
 
Sit with the legs about a meter apart.
Bend the left knee and place the heel against the perineum. Bend forward, inclining the body to the right to hold the right foot with the right hand.
The fingers should be in contact with the arch of the foot and the thumb should be on top.
Place the elbow on the floor on the inside of the straight leg.
Move the right shoulder down towards the right leg. Bring the left arm over the head and grasp the right foot with the left hand.
Contracting the arms, slowly pull the right shoulder towards the right foot.
Ease the head under the left arm, relax the back and twist the trunk as much as possible so that the chest is open and facing forward.
Hold the pose for a comfortable length of time.
Release the hands, raising the left arm over the head,
 
and slowly return to the upright position.
Repeat the movement on the other side.
Breathing: Breathe normally while positioning the legs.
Exhale while inclining the trunk and placing the arms and hands into position, then inhale.
Exhale while pulling the body sideways.
Breathe normally while holding the final position.
Inhale while returning to the upright position.
Duration: Practice once on each side. Discontinue the pose if
any discomfort is experienced.
 
 
Contra-indications: Pregnant women or people with back
complaints should not perform this practice.
Benefits: This asana gives a lateral stretch to the body, and also stretches the hamstrings and behind the shoulders. It gives a beneficial compression of the abdominal muscles and organs on one side of the body and simultaneously stretches them on the other side. It prepares the body for
long hours of sitting in meditation asanas.
Saithalyasana (animal relaxation pose)
 
Sit on the floor with the legs outstretched.
Carefully bend the right knee and place the sole of the foot against the inside of the left thigh.
Bend the left knee and place the left heel to the outside of the left buttock.
Tum the torso to the right and rest the hands on the right knee.
Raise the arms above the head, keeping them straight and shoulder width apart.
Bend forward over the right knee, bringing the forehead to the floor. Relax in the position.
To return to the starting position, raise the arms and trunk in one straight line, then lower the hands to the right knee.
 
Practice 5 times on the right, then 5 times on the left side.
Breathing: Inhale while raising the arms.
Exhale while bending forward.
Breathe normally in the final position.
Inhale while returning to the upright position. Exhale while lowering the arms.
 
Contra-indications: People who have lower back conditions
should only bend forward as far as is comfortable.
 
 Benefits: This asana stretches the back, pelvic region, insides of the thighs and opens up the hip joints. It balances the nervous system. It also massages the abdomen.
Poorna Titali Asana (full butterfly)
 
Sit in the base position.
Bend the knees and bring the soles of the feet together, keeping the heels as close to the perineum as possible. Fully relax the inner thigh muscles.
Stage I : Clasp the feet with both hands.
Gently move the knees up and then down towards the floor, but do not use any force.
 
Practice up to 30 up and down movements.
 
Breathing: Normal breathing, unrelated to the practice. Awareness: On the hip joint, movement and relaxation.
 
 Contra-indications: People with sciatica and sacral conditions
should avoid this asana.
 
Benefits: this asana prepare the legs for mastery of
padmasana and other meditative asanas. The inner thigh muscles hold a lot of tension which is relieved by these asanas. They also remove tiredness due to long hours of Standing and walking ..
Padmasana (lotus pose)
 
Sit with the legs straight in front of the body.
Slowly and carefully bend one leg and place the foot on top of the opposite thigh.
The sole should face upward and the heel should be close to the pubic bone.
When this feels comfortable, bend the other leg and place the foot on top of the opposite thigh.
  Both knees should, ideally, touch the ground in the final position .
The head and spine should be held upright and the shoulders relaxed.
Place the hands on the knees in chin ajnana mudra. Relax the arms with the elbows slightly bent and check that the shoulders are not raised or hunched.
Close the eyes and relax the whole body.
Observe the total posture of the body. Make the necessary adjustments by moving forward or backward until balance and alignment are experienced. Perfect alignment indi­ cates the correct posture of padmasana.
 
Contra-indications: Those who suffer from sciatica or weak or injured knees should not perform this asana. This asana should not be attempted until flexibility of the knees has been developed through practice of the pre-meditation asanas. It is not advisable during pregnancy as the circu­ lation in the legs is reduced.
 
Benefits: Padmasana allows the body to be held completely steady for long periods of time. It holds the trunk and head like a pillar with the legs as the firm foundation. As the body is steadied, the mind becomes calm. This steadi­ ness and calmness is the first step towards real meditation. Padmasana directs the flow of prana from mooladhara chakra in the perineum to sahasrara chakra in the head, heightening the experience of meditation.
This posture applies pressure to the lower spine, which has a relaxing effect on the nervous system. The breath becomes slow, muscular tension is decreased and blood pressure is reduced. The normally large blood flow to the legs is redirected to the abdominal region. This activity also stimulates the digestive process